Concrete deteriorates when subjected to different environmental conditions. Saturated concrete exposed to freeze and thaw cycles may experience disintegration. Chloride penetration from de-icing salts or sea water, carbonation of the concrete, and inadequate concrete cover depths result in reinforcement corrosion. The resulting expansion due to corrosion by-product can cause cracking and de-lamination of the concrete.
Repair methods include surface repair systems, removal and replacement, protective coatings, jacketing, cathodic protection systems, strengthening systems, and crack repair.